Featured Reports

Getting Smarter About Sanctions

Faced with a global outcry against the cost in human suffering caused by comprehensive sanctions in the early 1900s, the UN Security Council began discussion of the potential of 'targeted' or 'smart' sanctions in 1993. After 1994, every case of Security Council sanctions fit this new format, aimed at applying pressure directly to decision-makers and political leaders while minimizing their impact on the global population. These sanctions were largely coercive in nature, and were perceived by a number of  states as being cumbersome and punitive.

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Reaching Diplomatic Agreement with Iran

Because of the historic mistrust between the United States and Iran, as well as the complexities of the nuclear issue, achieving an agreement will require significant new initiatives and greater diplomatic flexibility on both sides.

This discussion paper outlines options for the United States and its partners in the UN Security Council and the P5+1. We propose an immediate initiative for constructive engagement and a longer-term diplomatic strategy, in support of the new round of P5+1 discussions that are set to begin in October. To take advantage of the current opportunity for engaging with Iran on a solution to the nuclear standoff, we recommend a three-pronged strategy.…

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The Sanctions & Security Research Program is a project of the Fourth Freedom Forum and the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame.