November 1997 This report is the result of the most comprehensive independent investigation ever conducted of Pakistani attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Based on more than 900 30-minute interviews with educated professionals in eight Pakistani cities, it provides candid evidence that concerns about India are the predominant justification for nuclear weapons in Pakistan. The study found that a settlement of the dispute in Kashmir and a verifiable renunciation of India’s nuclear program could convince Pakistani elites to forego the nuclear option.
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