News

Smart Sanctions: Targeting Economic Statecraft

Targeting Economic Statecraft

(Rowman & Littlefield, 2002) Edited by David Cortright and George A. Lopez.
 

In recent years, international attention has turned toward the use of targeted, “smart” sanctions that minimize unintended humanitarian consequences and focus coercive pressure on responsible decision makers.

Some of the world’s leading sanctions experts and practitioners join together in this book to provide the first published account of the emerging theory and practice of smart sanctions. The essays examine recent uses of targeted financial sanctions, travel sanctions, and arms embargoes, and offer recommendations for improving their design and implementation.…

Read More

Refinement and Reform in UN Sanctions: The State of the Art

November 2001 – The Security Council has significantly improved UN sanctions policy in recent years. Most notable have been steps toward sharpening sanctions design, applying more targeted measures called ‘smart sanctions,’ strengthening monitoring and enforcement, and prioritizing humanitarian concerns. Yet these advances have been compromised by competing political agendas among the five permanent members of the Security Council, inadequate compliance by member states, and a lack of institutionalized UN capacity for monitoring and enforcement.…

Read More

Smart Sanctions: Restructuring UN Policy in Iraq

Restructuring UN Policy in Iraq

March 2001 – This report and the larger study it anticipates began in October 2000 as an extension of the ongoing sanctions research undertaken at the urging of UN member states to explore the possibility of an alternative to the UN comprehensive embargo against Iraq that had been in place since 1990. The investigation was prompted by the continued erosion of the economic sanctions and the possible breakdown of controls on Iraq’s production of weapons of mass destruction, which were in question after the December 1998 bombing of Iraq and the departure of arms inspectors there.…

Read More

South Asia at the Nuclear Crossroads

South Asia at the Nuclear Crossroads

March 2001 – India and Pakistan stand at a nuclear crossroads, poised between demonstrated nuclear weapons status and the deployment of deliverable nuclear arsenals. The presence of nuclear weapons in the volatile and strategically located region of South Asia poses a serious threat to vital U.S. regional and global interests. The Bush administration can prevent India’s and Pakistan’s nuclear competition from assuming the shape of an all-out nuclear arms race through a coherent and consistent nonproliferation policy and suitable influence strategies.…

Read More

Positive Inducements in International Statecraft

May 2000 – The paper contains a review of case studies and empirical research examining the ways in which positive inducements shape the preferences of political leaders in recipient countries. The evidence shows that incentives work better than sanctions and that the combination of incentives and sanctions is more effective than either approach alone.…

Read More

The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s

Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s

(Lynne Rienner, 2000) By David Cortright and George A. Lopez.

Since the end of the Cold War, economic sanctions have been a frequent instrument of UN authority, imposed by the Security Council against nearly a dozen targets. Some efforts appear to have been successful, others are more doubtful; all, though, have been controversial. This book is based on more than two hundred interviews with sanctions experts and officials from the UN and many countries. It provides the first comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of UN sanctions during the 1990s.…

Read More

Morbidity and Mortality among Iraqi Children from 1990 to 1998

March 1999 – Sustained increases in young child mortality are extremely rare. In Iraq, there have been many reports suggesting a rise in rates of death and disease since the Gulf War of January/February 1991 and the economic sanctions that followed it and continue to this day. There is no agreement, however, on the magnitude of the mortality increase, its causes, who is responsible for these deaths, or how to stop these deaths from happening.…

Read More

Toward a More Humane and Effective Sanctions Management

February 1998 – This report was commissioned by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs to provide a multifaceted research review of the impact of multilateral sanctions, including the development of a methodology for data gathering and assessing such impact that could be used by UN agencies, researchers and others.  This report – which later was endorsed by the UN Inter-agency Standing Committee in Geneva and used by DHA for the next five years – includes much of the methodology and examples of studies using the categories in the cases of South Africa, Iraq, the former Yugoslavia and Haiti.…

Read More

Pakistan's Nuclear Choices

November 1997 This report is the result of the most comprehensive independent investigation ever conducted of Pakistani attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Based on more than 900 30-minute interviews with educated professionals in eight Pakistani cities, it provides candid evidence that concerns about India are the predominant justification for nuclear weapons in Pakistan. The study found that a settlement of the dispute in Kashmir and a verifiable renunciation of India’s nuclear program could convince Pakistani elites to forego the nuclear option.…

Read More

Political Gain and Civilian Pain

Political Gain and Civilian Pain

(Rowman & Littlefield, 1997) Edited by Thomas G. Weiss, David CortrightGeorge A. Lopez, and Larry Minear.

The use of sanctions is increasing in the post-cold war world. Along with this increase, the international community must ask itself whether sanctions “work,” in the sense that they incite citizens to change or overthrow an offending government, and whether sanctions are really less damaging than the alternative of war. Here for the first time, sanctions and humanitarian aid experts focus on the humanitarian impacts of UN sanctions. The results show that often the most vulnerable members of targeted societies pay the price of sanctions and that, in addition, the international system is called upon to compensate the victims for the undeniable pain they have suffered.…

Read More

The Price of Peace: Incentives and International Conflict Prevention

Incentives and International Conflict Prevention

(Rowman & Littlefield, 1997). Edited by David Cortright.

As part of its groundbreaking effort to develop a comprehensive framework for security and conflict prevention in the post-cold war era, the Carnegie Commission for Preventing Deadly Conflict commissioned a series of case studies on incentives and international cooperation that are the focus of this new book.…

Read More

Economic Sanctions: Panacea of Peacebuilding in a Post-Cold War World?

Economic Sanctions

(Westview Press, 1995) Edited by David Cortright and George A. Lopez.

As the challenge of preventing military conflict has become increasingly complex in the post-cold war era, economic sanctions are being applied withgrowing frequency. Sanctions are also being used to enforce international law, to deter aggression and terrorism, to defend democracy and human rights, and to prevent nuclear proliferation.…

Read More

Humanitarian Sanctions? The Moral and Political Issues

October 1995 – This report summarizes some key human rights principles that apply to economic sanctions. The principles include the necessity of avoiding harm to innocent and vulnerable populations, the importance of targeting pressures against decision-making elites who are responsible for repressive policies, the need to avoid and mitigate adverse social and humanitarian consequences, and the value of gaining some consent from human rights advocates and victims of repression within a sanctioned country.…

Read More

A Study of India's Nuclear Choices

November 1994 – This study summarizes the results of a 1994 survey of approximately 1,000 educated Indian elites on attitudes toward nuclear weapons policy. The survey results showed broad support for Indian government policy at the time, which consisted of neither confirming nor denying de facto nuclear weapons capability, while simultaneously advocating global nuclear disarmament. When respondents were asked what would justify the development of nuclear weapons, most cited threats from other nuclear powers or from Pakistan. A much smaller percentage cited concerns about political relations with China.…

Read More